Good overview of the history of the poverty measure. From the University of Wisconsin/Madison's Institute for Research on Poverty, one of three National Poverty Research Centers sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
"The House Ways and Means Committee Green Book provides program descriptions and historical data on a wide variety of social and economic topics, including Social Security, employment, earnings, welfare, child support, health insurance, the elderly, families with children, poverty and taxation.
A wealth of searchable Census data, including the Decennial Census, American Community Survey and the Economic Census. You can use this resource to create your own maps and tables. NOTE: American FactFinder works with Mozilla Firefox 8 and Microsoft Internet Explorer 8. Other browsers may not perform as expected.
Current Population Survey, Annual Social Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) American Community Survey (ACS); Decennial Census; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE); Microdata. Includes historical poverty data back to 1959.
See also their Concentrated Poverty reports. "The Brookings Institution traces its beginnings to 1916, when a group of leading reformers founded the Institute for Government Research (IGR), the first private organization devoted to analyzing public policy issues at the national level."
"Founded in 1973, The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institution—a think tank—whose mission is to formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense."
"One of seven projects that make up the Pew Research Center, a nonpartisan “fact tank” that provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. It does not take positions on policy issues. The Pew Research Center is an independent subsidiary of the Pew Charitable Trusts."
See their State Profiles. "RUPRI is housed within the Harry S Truman School of Public Affairs at the University of Missouri-Columbia and is a joint program of Iowa State University, the University of Missouri, and the University of Nebraska. RUPRI was founded in 1990 to address a concern of some members of the Senate Agricultural Committee that no objective non-governmental source of external data, information, and analysis, regarding the rural and community impacts of public policy decisions was available."
"In the mid-1960s, President Johnson saw the need for independent nonpartisan analysis of the problems facing America's cities and their residents. The President created a blue-ribbon commission of civic leaders who recommended chartering a center to do that work. In 1968, the Urban Institute became that center." For more information on poverty related issues, browse the Urban Institute site By Topic and see Fact Sheets.