An excellent compilation of links from dozens Federal sites offering business and economics data (including most of the links on this page). From ALA GODORT's Frequently Used Sites Related to U.S. Federal Government Information.
The Securities and Exchange Commission requires all public companies (except foreign companies and companies with less than $10 million in assets and 500 shareholders) to file registration statements, periodic reports, and other forms electronically through EDGAR. The EDGAR database is publicly accessible.
Replacement page for Stat-USA, a Commerce Dept. resource providing a variety of trade related statistics. Stat-USA ceases of of Sept. 30, 2010. This page links to some of the major data provided by that service.
From the USDA Economic Research Service. State fact sheets provide information on population, income, education, employment, federal funds, organic agriculture, farm characteristics, farm financial indicators, top commodities, and exports, for each State in the United States. Links to county-level data are included when available.