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Italian Studies

Provides annotated links to scholarly resources of particular interest to students & faculty researching at U.Va.

Citation Guidance


Citation Management Tools

Reference managers software allows a user to organize and retrieve information, such as citations for books, articles, and Web sites, by interfacing with library databases.

The reference manager then works with word processing software to insert properly formatted footnotes or citations into a paper and create a properly formatted bibliography.

The University of Virginia recommend to use Zotero since this is the most recognized open source that help you to collect, organize, cite, and share your research. .



For more information about Zotero at UVA, consult the following: information:

The basics of Zotero by Maggie Nunley
Citation Managers by UVA Librarian Reference Team

What is Zotero? Zotero is a free and open-source reference management software to manage bibliographic data and related research materials.




       Citing Sources

1) Documenting Sources

In the process of writing a research paper, you must document the cited sources with footnotes or/and end notes and a bibliography which appears at the end of your paper. In this bibliography you need to lists every work you have cited in your notes; in addition, it may include works that you consulted but did not cite.

The terminology in French language is: "notes" (de pied de page); ¨"bibliographie consultée" or "bibliographie citée" or "bibliographie d'intérêt général".

To cite your sources properly, first you need to select the appropriated manual of style. Visit the library if you need to consult a print copy of one of these style guides:

  • Modern Language Association (MLA) Style Guide. (Humanities)
  • MLA handbook for writers of research papers. (Online Catalog Records)
  • Edition Location (Copy 2)
    8th ed. (2016) Shannon Ref LB2369 .M52 2016 Clemons / Fine Arts/ Health Sciences Health Sciences Reference LB2369 .M52 2016
    7th ed. (2009) Shannon Ref LB2369 .G53 2009 Clemons / Fine Arts/ Health Sciences Reference  LB2369 .G53 2009
    6th ed. (2003)  Shannon Ref LB2369 .G53 2003

     Clemons / Brown / Law                Reference  LB2369 .G53 2003


2) More information:



3) Chicago Style Guide.


You can consult in electronic format the 17th edition 2016 ,


       Free Online Citation Generators

These are free, online tools.  You should check the results you get.  Keep in mind... most automatic generators will give you the footnote style *or* the bibliography style.  You'll need to edit as necessary for the other.


  • 4 Citation Styles
    Whether you are using MLA, APA, Turabian or Chicago, BibMe can help you reference your work effectively.
  • Variety Of Sources
    Journals, websites, books and many other sources covering both digital and print format.
  • Plagiarism Checker
    Check your content for plagiarism against a great deal of sources on the Internet to avoid using somebody else’s words.

Features And Plans: Free Version Available (Most of the features are available in the free version.)

Citation Machine

  • Vast Citation Style Variety
    Citation Machine can help eLearning content developers reference in all 4 major styles, namely APA, MLA, Chicago and Turabian. However, it provides an immense library of 7.000 additional citation styles for many different fields.
  • Resources And Guides
    The platform offers a guide on how to properly cite in APA, MLA and Chicago.
  • Plagiarism Checker
    Much like BibMe, this platform also offers this feature that only comes if you subscribe though.
  • Numerous Sources
    Citation Machine allows you to cite content from books, magazines, newspapers, journals, films and many other sources.

Features And Plans: Free Version Available

Thanks to Rebecca Coleman (librarian for Architecture at UVA) for this information